Volume 22, Issue 3 (October 2015)                   J Birjand Univ Med Sci 2015, 22(3): 182-198 | Back to browse issues page

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Zare Bidaki M, Balalimood M. Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare, from Past to the Present: A classic review. J Birjand Univ Med Sci. 2015; 22 (3) :182-198
URL: http://journal.bums.ac.ir/article-1-1911-en.html
1- Birjand Hepatitis Research Center, Assistant professor in Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Paramedical, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran
2- of Clinical Toxicology, Medical Toxicology Research Center, Medical Faculty, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran , mbalalimood@mums.ac.ir
Abstract:   (26908 Views)

Bioterrorism is defined as any terrorist action of intentional release or dissemination of highly pathogenic biological agents, including a variety of microorganisms or biological toxins. With the growing threat of terrorism, is necessary that the potential danger of various microorganisms – as a powerful tool of aggression and threat- to be taken seriously.

This review tries to explain the concept of biological weapons and their historical development process with an emphasis on efforts to control the proliferation of these types of weapons over the last century. Potential impact of infectious diseases on people and armed forces was known from since 600 BC.

Using the victims of the plague as a weapon in medieval warfare and spread of smallpox as a weapon during the war against the Indians when initially America was discovered, the development of biological weapons during the World War I, World War II and the Cold War, and even since the beginning of the third millennium, all show the strategic importance of pathogenic microorganisms as a deterrent power for the superiority of some governments and cults.

Historical attempts to use infectious diseases as biological weapons reveal that the distinction between a natural outbreak of an infectious disease and that of a deliberate biological attack is very difficult. Abusing this characteristic of infectious diseases has made it possible for the purposes of superiority.

International agreements to control the development of biological weapons, such as “the 1925 Geneva Protocol” and “the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Biological and Toxic Weapons” have not been able to control the development and using of biological warfare.  The current paper is a classic review (Overview) article aiming at increasing the knowledge and awareness of people especially of health authorities and government officials.

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Type of Study: Review | Subject: Toxicology
Received: 2015/07/7 | Accepted: 2015/09/15 | ePublished: 2015/11/18

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