Volume 12, Issue 3 And 4 (October & January 2005)                   J Birjand Univ Med Sci. 2005, 12(3 And 4): 9-15 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Balali-Mood M, Hefazi M. A review on the delayed complications of sulphur mustard poisoning. J Birjand Univ Med Sci.. 2005; 12 (3 and 4) :9-15
URL: http://journal.bums.ac.ir/article-1-66-en.html
1- Professor and Director, MedicalToxicology Centre, Imam Reza Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Mashhad, Iran , mbalalimood@hotmail.com
2- Research Physician
Abstract:   (10358 Views)
The widespread use of sulphur mustard (SM) as an incapacitating warfare agent in the past century has proved its highly long lasting toxic effects. It exerts direct toxic effects on the eyes, skin, and respiratory tissue, with subsequent systemic action on the nervous, immunologic, haematologic, digestive and
reproductive systems. SM is an alkylating agent that affects DNA synthesis and thus its delayed complications has been considered since the World War One and cases of malignancies in the target organs particularly in haematopoietic, respiratory and digestive systems were reported. Important delayed
respiratory complications include chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, frequent bronchopneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis, all of which tend to deteriorate in time. Severe dry skin, delayed keratitis, and decreased number of natural killer cells with subsequent increased risk of infections and malignancies are also among the most distressing long-term consequences of SM intoxication. However, there are still major gaps in SM literature. Immunological and neurological dysfunctions, as well as SM relationship to mutagenicities, carcinogenesis and teratogenesis are important fields which require further studies, particularly on human subjects following single exposure.
Full-Text [PDF 177 kb]   (4991 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Toxicology
Received: 2006/09/6 | Accepted: 2014/01/8 | Published: 2014/01/8

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author


© 2018 All Rights Reserved | Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb